The choice of material for the construction of a foundation is determined by the material type. Nevertheless, it is possible to identify the main construction materials used to build a reliable foundation for a countryside house.
To build a foundation, you will need the following materials:
Concrete is a material which is a hardened mixture of sand, water, a binder, and aggregates. Gravel, crushed stone, or sand are normally used as aggregates.
The following materials may act as a binder in concrete:
- mixture of lime and silica materials (silicate concrete)
- organic polymer (various resins)
Hardened concrete is durable, waterproof, and frost resistant. It is quite simple to use — even a person with no construction background can lay concrete.
During the construction of monolithic foundations, concrete is poured into the trench in its original form. Preformed (normally, factory-preformed) concrete blocks are used for modular strip foundations or pier foundations. See how to choose the right concrete to build a foundation.
Sand is used not only as a concrete component but also for the purpose of building a sand mat for the foundation. A sand mat is prepared if loose soil cannot serve as a reliable foundation.
The upper soil layer is removed, and coarse or medium-grained sand (with a thickness of 50 cm to 60 cm) is placed there instead.
Wood can be used as a construction material for building a foundation (wooden supports for a pile foundation) or as an auxiliary element (concrete formwork).
Wood is a construction material that is cheap and easy to use. However, it should be noted that the durability of wood leaves much to be desired, as it is highly susceptible to rot.
A reinforcing structure woven into concrete will make your foundation strong and reliable. In order to reinforce a concrete structure, use flexible steel rods or grids.
Reinforcement steel should be strong and rather plastic at the same time. Its surfaces are usually ribbed to improve adhesion to concrete.
In order to save money on heating, you can use special thermal insulants in concrete foundations. These include:
- expanded clay (artificial porous aggregate in the form of crushed stone or gravel)
- mineral wool boards (fibrous rock material)
- foam plastic (plastic mass of cellular structure) and foam polystyrene (a type of foam plastic)